Why Preventative Health Care is Important for Dogs
How often should my dog see the veterinarian?
Since dogs age at a faster rate than humans, they should see their doctor more often than we see ours. People commonly equate one year of a dog’s life to 7 human years but this is an oversimplification. In fact, one calendar year for a dog may equal anywhere between 4-15 human years due to the way dogs mature.
Puppies mature very quickly during the first year of life and are considered to be teenagers (about 15 years old) by only 12 months! By their second birthday, they are actually about 25 years old. After that, the ageing rate slows down so a dog ages about 4-5 years for each calendar year with large breeds aging more quickly than smaller breeds.
The bottom line is this: Dogs age faster than we do. If we get a physical exam and blood tests annually, that’s like our dogs taking the same preventive health measures every 4-5 years. The rapid ageing process of dogs makes preventive health care even more important.
What are the preventative health care guidelines?
A preventive health plan revolves around regularly scheduled exams of an apparently healthy dog in order to maintain optimum health.
To standardize wellness plans, the AAHA (American Animal Hospital Association) and the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) gathered medical information from various specialty groups (American Heartworm Society, American Association of Feline Practitioners, and Companion Animal Parasite Council to name a few) and devised guidelines focused on preventive healthcare for pets.
Here is an overview of some of the AAHA, AVMA recommendations for preventive care and why they are important to your dog:
History: A discussion of your dog’s home life will give your veterinarian an overall idea of his health status. Changes in your dog’s demeanor may occur so gradually that you aren’t aware of them until you are asked specific questions. Your answers will guide the veterinarian along a diagnostic path that will end with your dog feeling better.
Examinations: Even healthy dogs should be examined by a veterinarian at least once a year, sometimes twice. If your dog is older or has medical problems, more frequent visits may be necessary. Physical exams can detect heart murmurs or skipped beats, enlarged lymph nodes, tumors, enlarged or shrunken kidneys, liver, or spleen, a dog’s visual capacity, arthritis, skin infections, and many other changes. These changes can indicate diseases, prompt further testing, or indicate the need for medications such as pain relief or flea and tick preventatives.
Testing: Although heartworms are more prevalent in warmer climates where mosquitoes thrive, infected dogs live in every state. Even dogs in cold environments can get heartworms, so The American Heartworm Society advises annual heartworm blood testing. Intestinal parasites can affect both dogs and humans, so a stool sample should be analyzed at least once (preferably twice) a year. To diagnose organ malfunctions in the early stages, blood tests (CBC, chemistry panel, thyroid screen) and urinalysis should be performed annually. If problems are diagnosed, more frequent testing may be necessary. For dogs in areas where ticks are prevalent, screening for vector borne diseases like Lyme Disease or Ehrlichia may be advised.
Dental Care: It’s a well known fact that oral health impacts a dog’s general health. The bacteria involved in periodontal disease can invade the blood stream and travel to major organs like the kidneys and heart where they cause significant health issues. Dogs usually need a dental cleaning once yearly, but certain breeds predisposed to periodontal disease and aged dogs may need their teeth cleaned twice yearly like people do. Dental radiographs will help determine the status of oral disease. Regular dental cleanings will allow your dog to keep his pearly whites in good condition and to live longer.
Parasite Prevention: Dogs should be given medication to prevent heartworms all year long. Many heartworm medications also prevent or treat intestinal parasites, fleas, and ticks. A parasite prevention protocol can be tailored to a dog’s specific needs within his personal environment.
Immunizations: Vaccinations are divided into two groups: core vaccines and optional vaccines. All dogs (without medical problems that preclude immunization) should receive vaccinations for rabies, distemper, canine parvovirus, and canine adenovirus-2 (hepatitis). Vaccination for kennel cough and canine influenza may be recommended for dogs with potential exposure to these diseases.
Weight Maintenance: Research has shown that leaner dogs live longer and have fewer health problems. Your veterinarian will assign a body condition score to your dog and give you dietary and exercise recommendations to help your dog maintain a healthy body mass index.
Diagnosing Dog Disease
Since dogs cannot talk, veterinarians can’t ask them how they are feeling or what’s bothering them. Plus, innate survival instincts make dogs hide illnesses so they won’t appear weak or vulnerable to predators. That means thorough physical exams are crucial to keep dogs healthy. And since your veterinarian can’t see what’s going on inside a dog’s body, blood and urine tests are needed to complete the health picture. These preventive medicine steps will diagnose problems earlier making treatment more successful and less costly and, more importantly, will help your dog live a longer, healthier life.